AGENTS AND AGENCY 13! considered as only a description and not as a qualifying word. This procedure need not be adopted when there is reference made in the body of the document to the fact that the person executing it is an agent. If, for example, " A.B." is referred to in the body of charter-party as agent for "C.D." then there is no necessity for "A.B." to qualify his signature when completing the document, as it has been held that the document is construed as a whole in all cases of dispute. As in the case of many other contracts by brokers, charter-parties are arranged by telephone or telegraphic communication, and the broker must in these cases (to en- sure his own safety), qualify his signature by such words as " By Telegraphic authority," or " By Telephonic authority," or again in some cases "Subject to owner's approval/' In each case the agent makes allowance for any discrepancies which may have occurred in the course of transmission of the cables or telegram. When an agent works under the conditions which have been emphasized above, he may have little or no fear that any acts of his own will render him personally liable.